Friday, October 06, 2006

The Gospel of Judas

'Gospel of Judas' Surfaces After 1,700 Years


An early Christian manuscript, including the only known text of what is
known as the Gospel of Judas, has surfaced after 1,700 years. The text
gives new insights into the relationship of Jesus and the disciple who
betrayed him, scholars reported today. In this version, Jesus asked
Judas, as a close friend, to sell him out to the authorities, telling
Judas he will "exceed" the other disciples by doing so.

Though some theologians have hypothesized this, scholars who have
studied the new-found text said, this is the first time an ancient
document defends the idea.

The discovery in the desert of Egypt of the leather-bound papyrus
manuscript, and now its translation, was announced by the National
Geographic Society at a news conference in Washington. The 26-page Judas
text is said to be a copy in Coptic, made around A. D. 300, of the
original Gospel of Judas, written in Greek the century before.

Terry Garcia, an executive vice president of the geographic society,
said the manuscript, or codex, is considered by scholars and scientists
to be the most significant ancient, nonbiblical text to be found in the
past 60 years.

"The codex has been authenticated as a genuine work of ancient Christian
apocryphal literature," Mr. Garcia said, citing extensive tests of
radiocarbon dating, ink analysis and multispectral imaging and studies
of the script and linguistic style. The ink, for example, was consistent
with ink of that era, and there was no evidence of multiple rewriting.

"This is absolutely typical of ancient Coptic manuscripts," said Stephen
Emmel, professor of Coptic studies at the University of Munster in
Germany. "I am completely convinced."

The most revealing passages in the Judas manuscript begins, "The secret
account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas
Iscariot during a week, three days before he celebrated Passover."

The account goes on to relate that Jesus refers to the other disciples,
telling Judas "you will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the
man that clothes me." By that, scholars familiar with Gnostic thinking
said, Jesus meant that by helping him get rid of his physical flesh,
Judas will act to liberate the true spiritual self or divine being
within Jesus.

Unlike the accounts in the New Testament Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke
and John, the anonymous author of the Gospel of Judas believed that
Judas Iscariot alone among the 12 disciples understood the meaning of
Jesus' teachings and acceded to his will. In the diversity of early
Christian thought, a group known as Gnostics believed in a secret
knowledge of how people could escape the prisons of their material
bodies and return to the spiritual realm from which they came.

Elaine Pagels, a professor of religion at Princeton who specializes in
studies of the Gnostics, said in a statement, "These discoveries are
exploding the myth of a monolithic religion, and demonstrating how
diverse =97 and fascinating =97 the early Christian movement really was."

The Gospel of Judas is only one of many texts discovered in the last 65
years, including the gospels of Thomas, Mary Magdalene and Philip,
believed to be written by Gnostics.

The Gnostics' beliefs were often viewed by bishops and early church
leaders as unorthodox, and they were frequently denounced as heretics.
The discoveries of Gnostic texts have shaken up Biblical scholarship by
revealing the diversity of beliefs and practices among early followers
of Jesus.

As the findings have trickled down to churches and universities, they
have produced a new generation of Christians who now regard the Bible
not as the literal word of God, but as a product of historical and
political forces that determined which texts should be included in the
canon, and which edited out.

For that reason, the discoveries have proved deeply troubling for many
believers. The Gospel of Judas portrays Judas Iscariot not as a betrayer
of Jesus, but as his most favored disciple and willing collaborator.

Scholars say that they have long been on the lookout for the Gospel of
Judas because of a reference to what was probably an early version of it
in a text called Against Heresies, written by Irenaeus, the bishop of
Lyons, about the year 180.

Irenaeus was a hunter of heretics, and no friend of the Gnostics. He
wrote, "They produce a fictitious history of this kind, which they style
the Gospel of Judas."

Karen L. King, a professor of the history of early Christianity at
Harvard Divinity School, and an expert in Gnosticism who has not yet
read the manuscript released today, said that the Gospel of Judas may
well reflect the kinds of debates that arose in the second and third
century among Christians.

"You can see how early Christians could say, if Jesus's death was all
part of God's plan, then Judas's betrayal was part of God's plan," said
Ms. King, the author of several books on Gnostic texts. "So what does
that make Judas? Is he the betrayer, or the facilitator of salvation,
the guy who makes the crucifixion possible?"

At least one scholar said the new manuscript does not contain anything
dramatic that would change or undermine traditional understanding of the
Bible. James M. Robinson, a retired professor of Coptic studies at
Claremont Graduate University, was the general editor of the English
edition of the Nag Hammadi library, a collection of Gnostic documents
discovered in Egypt in 1945.

"Correctly understood, there's nothing undermining about the Gospel of
Judas," Mr. Robinson said in a telephone interview. He said that the New
Testament gospels of John and Mark both contain passages that suggest
that Jesus not only picked Judas to betray him, but actually encouraged
Judas to hand him over to those he knew would crucify him.

Mr. Robinson's book, "The Secrets of Judas: The Story of the
Misunderstood Disciple and his Lost Gospel" (Harper San Francisco, April
2006), predicts the contents of the Gospel of Judas based on his
knowledge of Gnostic and Coptic texts, even though he was not part of
the team of researchers working on the document.

The Egyptian copy of the gospel was written on 13 sheets of papyrus,
both front and back, and found in a multitude of brittle fragments.

Rudolphe Kasser, a Swiss scholar of Coptic studies, directed the team
that reconstructed and translated the script. The effort, organized by
the National Geographic, was supported by Maecenas Foundation for
Ancient Art, in Basel, Switzerland, and the Waitt Institute for
Historical Discovery, an American nonprofit organization for the
application of technology in historical and scientific projects.

The entire 66-page codex also contains a text titled James (also known
as First Apocalypse of James), a letter by Peter and a text of what
scholars are provisionally calling Book of Allogenes.

Discovered in the 1970's in a cavern near El Minya, Egypt, the document
circulated for years among antiquities dealers in Egypt, then Europe and
finally in the United States. It moldered in a safe-deposit box at a
bank in Hicksville, N. Y., for 16 years before being bought in 2000 by a
Zurich dealer, Frieda Nussberger-Tchacos. The manuscript was given the
name Codex Tchacos.

When attempts to resell the codex failed, Ms. Nussberger-Tchacos turned
it over to the Maecenas Foundation for conservation and translation.

Mr. Robinson said that an Egyptian antiquities dealer offered to sell
him the document in 1983 for $3 million, but that he could not raise the
money. He criticized the scholars now associated with the project, some
of whom are his former students, because he said they violated an
agreement made years ago by Coptic scholars that new discoveries should
be made accessible to all qualified scholars.

The manuscript will ultimately be returned to Egypt, where it was
discovered, and housed in the Coptic Museum in Cairo.

Ted Waitt, the founder and former chief executive of Gateway, said that
his foundation, the Waitt Institute for Historical Discovery, gave the
National Geographic Society a grant of more than $1 million to restore
and preserve the manuscript and make it available to the public.

" I didn't know a whole lot until I got into this about the early days
of Christianity. It was just extremely fascinating to me," Mr. Waitt
said in a telephone interview. He said he had no motivation other than
being fascinated by the finding. He said that after the document was
carbon dated and the ink tested, procedures his foundation paid for, he
had no question about its authenticity. "You can potentially question
the translation and the interpretation, he said, but you can't fake
something like this. It would be impossible."

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